Nishida, K., LI, K., Matsuo, T., Shimo, D. et al., "Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Characteristics Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(1):277-287, 2015, doi:10.4271/2014-32-0124.
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray. Discussion was made on the mechanisms behind these spray behaviors.