Mazziero, J., Moura, T., Garcia, R., Villalva, S. et al., "Response Time Estimation of a Hydraulic Actuator Applied at Automated Manual Transmissions," SAE Technical Paper 2014-36-0430, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-36-0430.
A hydraulic accumulator used in gear selection phase of an automated manual transmission was studied to employ simulations which could predict response time of entire system. A spring-mass-damper mathematical model was created from real data and response time measured in acquisitions of a first prototype system built.The model objective was to determine values for damper coefficient and spring mass rate to be used in the design of a pair of springs with enough stiffness to achieve system response time desired. With prototype data and mathematical model developed, predictions about response time of a final system were performed and a spring rate value was determined to satisfy with response time requested.From model data, numerical structural analyses were performed in order to predict eventual final system failures due to the stiffness values involved. Designed springs according to specified stiffness were assembled at final system and response time data were acquired and compared to the model predictions, accomplishing the response time desired.