Carvalho, M., Richard, K., Goldmints, I., and Tomanik, E., "Impact of Lubricant Viscosity and Additives on Engine Fuel Economy," SAE Technical Paper 2014-36-0507, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-36-0507.
Many countries are introducing fuel economy regulations in order to reduce the average emissions of light duty vehicles, since fuel consumption of vehicles is an important factor in air pollution. The lubricant has a significant role in reducing friction losses hence the fuel consumption, but the impact depends on the engine operation regime and the manner in which the lubricant components work together to change frictional properties.Different driving cycles are used by different countries and organizations to measure fuel consumption. The most common driving cycles are the European NEDC and the North American FTP-75 vehicle transient cycles. Fuel economy at full load and BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel consumption) are also common methods of measuring engine fuel economy.This paper discusses the influence of the different test cycles and lubricant formulation on fuel economy, comparing how lubricants with different properties and compositions respond to fuel economy standards and procedures.