Han, X., Wang, M., and Zheng, M., "An Enabling Study of Neat n-Butanol HCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0001, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0001.
This work investigates the benefits and challenges of enabling neat n-butanol HCCI combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Minor engine modifications are made to implement n-butanol port injection while other engine components are kept intact. The impacts of the fuel change, from diesel to n-butanol, are examined through steady-state engine tests with independent control of the intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation. As demonstrated by the test results, the HCCI combustion of a thoroughly premixed n-butanol/air lean mixture offers near-zero smoke and ultralow NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation and produces comparable engine efficiencies to those of conventional diesel high temperature combustion. The test results also manifest the control challenges of running a neat alcohol fuel in the HCCI combustion mode. The rapid heat release and the resultant excessive pressure rise rates prevent engine operation at higher loads, while a minimum level of intake boost is required to avoid misfire incidences at lower loads. With the use of intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation, clean and efficient n-butanol HCCI combustion is achieved from engine low load up to 10bar IMEP.