Guan, H., Duan, C., Lu, P., Zhan, J. et al., "The Research of Tire Mechanics at Lower-Speed for Interactive Developing," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0081, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0081.
With the development of computer and vehicle research to high frequency, the driving simulator plays an important role on vehicle research and pre-development. The driving simulator have already been used for research about human factors, advanced active system (ABS, ESP et al), the vehicle dynamics and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) et al. The crucial requirement for a driving simulator is that it should have realistic behavior. The realistic behavior base on high-fidelity dynamics models especially tire model. “Tire/road” model is of special importance model for its influence on vehicle performances. The forces for accelerating, braking and steering are all came from tire road contact. The simulator simulation faces all possible driving scenes as driving in the real word, like parking on the hill, stop and start again, sharp steering and sharp braking et al. From the research based on the ASCL driving simulator (State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China), the vehicle couldn't stop completely and the vehicle shift easily on the braking operation. The depressed phenomenon came from the tire model for its numerical problem at lower-speeds. To solve the unexpected phenomenon and increase validity of the tire model and improve the vehicle dynamics model to high frequency, the dynamic wheel model was proposed. Then, from the principle of force generation not the numerical algorithm, the static-sliding separation method was proposed to calculate tire forces at lower speeds. On the basis of these above theories, the longitudinal force and rolling resistance torque was simulated on computer and the verification carried on ASCL developing driving simulator platform.