Chollacoop, N., Tongroon, M., Kananont, M., Suebwong, A. et al., "50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0115, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0115.
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km. After completion of 50,000km, engine parts were dissembled for further analyses. Wear rating via clearance measurement and cleanliness rating via visual inspection were conducted on intake/exhaust valves, pistons, cylinder heads/blocks and injectors according to manufacturer handbook. Overall assessment on the use of B10 from Jatropha H-FAME in unmodified common-rail vehicle over 50,000km revealed no significant difference from the normal diesel criteria. Maximum torque and power were within 3% variation from rated values throughout 50,000km. Euro III emission regulation was clear for NOx and HC+NOx while CO and PM can beneficially clear Euro IV emission regulation.