Fu, C., Freeman, P., and Wagner, J., "Driver Models for Virtual Testing of Automotive Run-Off-Road and Recovery Control Systems and Education Strategies," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0256, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0256.
Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s). Further simulations show the important roles played by preview time and pursuit behavior under run-off-road and recovery conditions. Further studies involving integration of a driver model with a run-off-road recovery controller are listed as future work.