Li, S., Yang, X., Minaker, B., Lan, X. et al., "Development of a Nonlinear, Hysteretic and Frequency Dependent Bushing Model," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0428, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0428.
An accurate bushing model is vital for vehicle dynamic simulation regarding fatigue life prediction. This paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, which gives high precision and fast simulation. The ABM is a time-domain model targeting for vehicle durability simulation. It dynamically captures bushing nonlinearities that occur on stiffness, damping and hysteresis, through a time-history-based fitting technique, compensated with frequency dependency functionality. Among the simulated and test-collected bushing loads, good correlations have been achieved for elastomer bushings and hydraulic engine mounts and validated with a random excitation signal. This ABM model has been integrated into a virtual shaker table (from a parallel project) as the engine mount model to simulate the mount load, and has shown acceptable prediction on fatigue damage. Although the functionality of the ABM has been proven, limitations exist and future improvements are still necessary.