Kawahara, M., Katori, N., and Koyama, T., "Development of Materials for Gear with Superior Impact Wear Resistance," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0517, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0517.
The friction pattern on the chamfers of sleeves and dog gears is a combination of peeling and adhesive wear caused by the formation and propagation of fine cracks. The effect of additional elements on wear were checked by making a test apparatus capable of performing evaluations on test pieces equivalent to those using actual parts. The results showed that the addition of B, Ti-Nb helped improve wear resistance. This is attributed to enhanced toughness and reduced peeling due to the formation of a texture. A 45% reduction in wear was achieved in actual parts tests on steel with added B, Ti-Nb.