Li, C., Lien, F., Yee, E., and Dong, M., "Multiphase Flow Simulations of Poppet Valve Noise and Vibration," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0666, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0666.
A deeper understanding of the complex phenomenology associated with the multiphase flow-induced noise and vibration in a dynamic valve is of critical importance to the automotive industry. To this purpose, a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate the complex processes that are responsible for the noise and vibration in a poppet valve. More specifically, an Eulerian multiphase flow model, a dynamic mesh and a user-defined function are utilized to facilitate the modeling of this complicated two-phase fluid-structure interaction problem.For a two-phase flow through the valve, our simulations showed that the deformation and breakup of gas bubbles in the gap between the poppet and the valve seat generates a vibration that arises primarily from the force imbalance between the spring and the two-phase fluid flow induced forces on the poppet. A spectral analysis of the transient pressure force on the poppet revealed the presence of a strong cyclical behavior consisting of two major components. There was a low-frequency peak located at about 87 Hz which is associated with the frequency of the poppet vibration (and which we interpret to be the source of the mechanical noise) and a high-frequency peak located at about 970 Hz which is associated with compressibility effects and unsteady vortex motions in the spring chamber. The poppet vibration and noise is influenced by numerous factors such as the flow condition, the spring system properties, and the geometry of the valve.