Zhang, R., Zou, Q., Barber, G., Zhou, B. et al., "Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(1):16-20, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0680.
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.