Patalak, J., Gideon, T., Melvin, J., and Rains, M., "Improved Seat Belt Restraint Geometry for Frontal, Frontal Oblique and Rollover Incidents," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 3(2):93-109, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0740.
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the development and implementation of head and neck restraints, minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper discusses nineteen sled tests used to analyze hypothesized improvements to restraint system mounting geometry. The testing matrix included three sled acceleration profiles, three impact orientations, two Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) sizes as well as the restraint system design variables.