Wang, Z., Qi, Y., Liu, H., Long, Y. et al., "Experimental Study on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Gasoline Engine Combustion with Carbon Particle at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0752, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0752.
Occurrence of sporadic super-knock is the main obstacle to the development of advanced gasoline engines. One of the possible inducements of super-knock, agglomerated soot particle induced pre-ignition, was studied for high boosted gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The correlation between soot emissions and super-knock frequency was investigated in a four-cylinder gasoline direct injection production engine. The test results indicate that higher in-cylinder soot emission correlate with more pre-ignition and super-knock cycles in a GDI production engine. To study the soot/carbon particles trigger super-knock, a single-cylinder research engine for super-knock study was developed. The carbon particles with different temperatures and sizes were introduced into the combustion chamber to trigger pre-ignition and super-knock. Consistent with the testing conditions in the GDI production engine experiments, under similar pressure and temperature near the firing TDC, the test results in the single-cylinder research engine indicate that carbon particles with higher temperature and larger diameter could directly lead to pre-ignition and super-knock. Small carbon particles like soot emission could not lead to pre-ignition and super-knock.