Moriyoshi, Y., Yamada, T., Tsunoda, D., Xie, M. et al., "Numerical Simulation to Understand the Cause and Sequence of LSPI Phenomena and Suggestion of CaO Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0755, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0755.
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure. The possibility of a preignition due to particles including CaCO3 particles is numerically simulated comparing with the experimental results.