Gukelberger, R., Gingrich, J., Alger, T., and Almaraz, S., "Potential and Challenges for a Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst as a Combustion Promoter on a D-EGR® Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):583-595, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0784.
In light of the increasingly stringent efficiency and emissions requirements, several new engine technologies are currently under investigation. One of these new concepts is the Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine. The concept utilizes fuel reforming and high levels of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) to achieve very high levels of thermal efficiency. While the positive impact of reformate, in particular hydrogen, on gasoline engine performance has been widely documented, the on-board reforming process and / or storage of H2 remains challenging.The Water-Gas-Shift (WGS) reaction is well known and has been used successfully for many years in the industry to produce hydrogen from the reactants water vapor and carbon monoxide. For this study, prototype WGS catalysts were installed in the exhaust tract of the dedicated cylinder of a turbocharged 2.0 L in-line four cylinder MPI engine. The potential of increased H2 production in a D-EGR engine was evaluated through the use of these catalysts. Furthermore, the impact on engine performance was also examined. By using a WGS catalyst, H2 levels can be increased significantly, leading to further improved burn durations, combustion instabilities, decreased HC emissions, and greater knock resistance which can directly translate into enhanced engine efficiency. In addition, this paper also briefly discusses the current shortcomings of the WGS technology in an engine environment.