Skeen, S., Manin, J., and Pickett, L., "Visualization of Ignition Processes in High-Pressure Sprays with Multiple Injections of n-Dodecane," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):696-715, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0799.
We investigate the mixing, penetration, and ignition characteristics of high-pressure n-dodecane sprays having a split injection schedule (0.5/0.5 dwell/0.5 ms) in a pre-burn combustion vessel at ambient temperatures of 750 K, 800 K and 900 K. High-speed imaging techniques provide a time-resolved measure of vapor penetration and the timing and progression of the first- and second-stage ignition events. Simultaneous single-shot planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging identifies the timing and location where formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from first-stage ignition and consumed following second-stage ignition. At the 900-K condition, the second injection penetrates into high-temperature combustion products remaining in the near-nozzle region from the first injection. Consequently, the ignition delay for the second injection is shorter than that of the first injection (by a factor of two) and the second injection ignites at a more upstream location near the liquid length. At the 750 K and 800 K conditions, high-temperature ignition does not occur in the near-nozzle region after the end of the first injection, though formaldehyde remains from first-stage reactions. Under these conditions, the second injection penetrates into cool-flame products that are slightly elevated in temperature (∼100 K) relative to the ambient. This modest temperature increase and the availability of reactive cool-flame products reduces the first- and second-stage ignition delay of the second injection by a factor of approximately two relative to the first injection. At the 750-K ambient condition, high-temperature ignition of the first injection does not occur until the second injection enriches the very fuel-lean downstream regions.