Pinheiro, A., Vuilleumier, D., Kozarac, D., and Saxena, S., "Simulating a Complete Performance Map of an Ethanol-Fueled Boosted HCCI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0821, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0821.
This paper follows a cycle-simulation method for creating an engine performance map for an ethanol fueled boosted HCCI engine using a 1-dimensional engine model. Based on experimentally determined limits, the study defined operating conditions for the engine and performed a limited parameter sweep to determine the best efficiency case for each condition. The map is created using a 6-Zone HCCI combustion model coupled with a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism for ethanol, and validated against engine data collected from a 1.9L 4-Cylinder VW TDI engine modified to operate in HCCI mode. The engine was mapped between engine speeds of 900 and 3000 rpm, 1 and 3 bar intake pressure, and 0.2 and 0.4 equivalence ratio, resulting in loads between idle and 14.0 bar BMEP. Analysis of a number of trends for this specific engine map are presented, such as efficiency trends, effects of combustion phasing, intake temperature, engine load, engine speed, and operating strategy. The study found that, in general, delayed combustion timing, intermediate engine speed and high intake pressure yields optimal efficiency. Additionally, the map revealed a positive correlation between efficiency and equivalence ratio at engine speeds above 2100 rpm.