DelVescovo, D., Wang, H., Wissink, M., and Reitz, R., "Isobutanol as Both Low Reactivity and High Reactivity Fuels with Addition of Di-Tert Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) in RCCI Combustion," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(2):329-343, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0839.
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore the effects of isobutanol as both the high and low reactivity fuels in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion. Three fuel combinations were examined; EEE/diesel, isobutanol/diesel, and isobutanol/isobutanol+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide). In order to assess the relative performance of the fuel combinations of interest under RCCI operation, the engine was operated under conditions representative of typical low temperature combustion (LTC). A net load of 6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was chosen because it provides a wide operable range of equivalence ratios and combustion phasings without excessively high peak pressure rise rates (PPRR). The engine was operated under various intake pressures with global equivalence ratios from 0.28-0.36, and various combustion phasings (defined by 50% mass fraction burned-CA50) from about 1.5 to about 10 deg after top dead center (ATDC). Combustion phasing was varied by scaling the direct-injected fuel quantity appropriately.Due to isobutanol's high octane number, a significantly larger quantity of direct-injected fuel was required to match combustion phasing, resulting in higher NOx emissions and decreased gross thermal efficiency.