Dempsey, A., Curran, S., and Reitz, R., "Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):859-877, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0855.
The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. In general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.