Pritchard, J. and Cheng, W., "Effects of Secondary Air on the Exhaust Oxidation of Particulate Matters," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(3):1088-1097, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0886.
The effects of secondary air on the exhaust oxidation of particulate matters (PM) have been assessed in a direct-injection-spark-ignition engine under fuel rich fast idle condition (1200 rpm; 2 bar NIMEP). Substantial oxidation of the unburned feed gas species (CO and HC) and significant reduction of both the particulate number (up to ∼80%) and volume (up to ∼90%) have been observed. The PM oxidation is attributed to the reactions between the PM and the radicals generated in the oxidation of the feed gas unburned species. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that the reduction in PM volume is proportional to the amount of heat release in the secondary oxidation.