Zhang, J., Nithyanandan, K., Li, Y., Lee, C. et al., "Comparative Study of High-Alcohol-Content Gasoline Blends in an SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0891, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0891.
Ethanol is the most widely used renewable fuel in the world now. Compared to ethanol, butanol is another very promising renewable fuel for internal combustion engines. It is less corrosive, and has higher energy density, lower vapor pressure and lower solubility in water. However, the use of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in ABE fermentation, presents a cost advantage over ethanol and butanol and has attracted much attention recently. In this study, three high-alcohol-content gasoline blends (85% vol. of ethanol, butanol and ABE, referred as E85, B85 and ABE85, respectively) were investigated in a port-injection spark-ignition engine. ABE has a component ratio of 3:6:1. In addition, pure gasoline was also tested as a baseline for comparison. All fuels were tested under the same conditions (1200 RPM, Φ = 0.83−1.25, BMEP = 3 bar). Engine torque and cylinder pressure as well as emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), were measured and compared for the different fuels.