Nithyanandan, K., Zhang, J., Yuqiang, L., Wu, H. et al., "Investigating the Impact of Acetone on the Performance and Emissions of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Gasoline Blends in an SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0909, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0909.
Alcohols, especially n-butanol, have received a lot of attention as potential fuels and have shown to be a possible alternative to pure gasoline. The main issue preventing butanol's use in modern engines is its relatively high cost of production. ABE, the intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is being studied as an alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuels, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for individual component during fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. In this paper, ABE fuels with different component volumetric ratio, (A: B: E of 3:6:1 and 6:3:1), were blended with 70% vol. gasoline and combusted in a naturally aspirated, port-fuel injected spark ignited engine to estimate the impact of acetone. The performance of these blends was evaluated through measurements of in-cylinder pressure, and various exhaust emissions. In addition, pure gasoline was also tested as a baseline for comparison of ABE fuels. The tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1200 RPM and loads of 3 and 5 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) under different equivalence ratios. On the basis of the experimental data, the combustion characteristics and emission behavior of these fuels have been presented and discussed.