Jung, Y., Manin, J., Skeen, S., and Pickett, L., "Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Penetration of Diesel Sprays with a Variation in Spreading Angle," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0946, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0946.
The mixing field of sprays injected into high temperature and pressure environments has been observed to be tightly connected to spreading angle, therefore linking vaporization and combustion processes to the angular dispersion of the spray. Visualization of the Engine Combustion Network three-hole, Spray B diesel injector shows substantial variation in near-field spreading angle with respect to time compared to past measurements of the single-hole, Spray A injector. The source of these variations originating inside the nozzle, and the implications on mixing, evaporation, and combustion of the diesel plume, need to be understood. In this study, we characterize the ECN-target plume for a Spray B injector (Serial # 211201), which already benefits from extensive and detailed internal measurements of nozzle geometry and needle movement, while comparing to the single-hole Spray A with the same type of detailed geometry and understanding. We measure the spreading angle, liquid penetration, and vapor penetration with respect to time of the spray of interest using standardized diagnostics in a high-temperature, high-pressure capable optically accessible combustion chamber. High-speed Mie scattering and diffused back-illumination imaging (DBI) are applied for liquid penetration, and schlieren imaging, for vapor penetration. The measurements show that the near-field spreading angle is wide for the first 300 µs after the start of injection before dropping rapidly during a quasi-steady period and then increasing well before the end of injection. Changes in spreading angle are not coincident with needle motion throttling, suggesting more complicated internal flow transients. With DBI long-distance microscopy, a partially transparent region indicates that an intact liquid core at the nozzle exit occurs frequently in quasi-steady period, which is coincident with a narrow spreading angle. The liquid penetration measured by DBI is comparable to that of Mie-scattering using criteria and standardization already established by the ECN community for Spray A. The Spray B liquid and vapor penetration rates are slower than that of Spray A, showing responses connected to the transient spreading angle.