Lemazurier, L., Shidore, N., Kim, N., Moawad, A. et al., "Impact of Advanced Engine and Powertrain Technologies on Engine Operation and Fuel Consumption for Future Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0978, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0978.
Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today. This paper evaluates the impact of each of these technologies (engines, transmissions, start-stop) on the fuel economy and performance of a compact car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation.