Johnson, T., "Review of Vehicular Emissions Trends," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(3):1152-1167, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0993.
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2014. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Non-Road Mobile Machinery regulations for 2019-20 in Europe, and the continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards. An expert panel in India proposed a roadmap through 2025 for clean fuels and tailpipe regulations. LD (light duty) and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% brake thermal efficiency using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. Next, NOx control technologies are summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction), lean NOx traps, and combination systems. Emphasis is on durability and control. Diesel PM (particulate matter) reduction findings are evolving around the behavior of the soot cake and PM sensors. Gasoline particulates are further described and gasoline particulate filter regeneration is now better understood. Oxidation catalysts mainly involve developments towards stubborn problems, like sulfur tolerance, low-temperature performance with exhaust with high hydrocarbon and CO, and methane oxidation. Finally, the paper discusses some key developments in gasoline gaseous emission control, focusing on meeting new regulatory requirements in the US, durability, and on lean burn gasoline emissions control.