Theis, J., Kim, J., and Cavataio, G., "TWC+LNT/SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(2):474-486, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1006.
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target. Temperature studies indicated that the CC TWC needed to operate at a minimum of 500°C to provide good steam reforming activity, while the LNT/SCR needed to operate between 300 and 350°C to satisfy the NOx slip target while minimizing the slip of NH3, N2O, and HC during the purges. Sulfur poisoning increased the HC slip by degrading the steam reforming reaction, and the sulfur increased the NOx slip by decreasing the NOx storage capacity of the LNT. Both the TWC and LNT/SCR could be desulfated with rich exhaust at 700°C. However, it was projected that the ability to obtain 700°C at the underbody LNT/SCR location would be difficult without additional exhaust hardware, such as fuel injectors or air pumps. Consequently, development of the LNT/SCR system was terminated in favor of a passive TWC+SCR approach because of its superior sulfur tolerance. Investigations into the passive TWC+SCR approach are discussed in a companion SAE paper.