Zuber, M., Wan Mahmood, W., Harun, Z., Zainol Abidin, Z. et al., "Modeling of In-Cylinder Soot Particle Size Evolution and Distribution in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1075, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1075.
The focus of this study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along the predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories obtained from Kiva-3v CFD simulation with a series of Matlab routines. 3500 locations representing soot particles were selected inside the cylinder at 8° CA ATDC as soot was formed in high concentration at this CA. The dominant soot particle size was recorded within the size range of 20-50 nm at earlier CA and shifted to 10-20 nm after 20° CA ATDC. Soot particle quantities reduce sharply until 20° CA ATDC after which they remain steady at around 1500 particles. Soot particles inside the bowl region tend to stick to the bowl walls and those remaining in the bowl experience an increase in size. Soot particles that move to the upper bowl and squish regions were observed to experience a decrease in size. The decrease in size and number of soot particle was predominantly due to higher rate of soot oxidation compared to surface growth at later crank angle. However, soot particles inside the bowl region experience higher surface growth than oxidation rates hence slightly increase in size.