Li, X., Zhang, W., Li, J., Jiang, M. et al., "Analysis on Synchronizer of Manual Transmission using Finite Element Analysis," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1148, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1148.
A simulation model of the single cone synchronizer is presented using the dynamic implicit algorithm with commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus. The meshing components include sleeve gear, blocking ring and clutch gear, which are all considered as deformation body. The processes mainly contain the contact between sleeve teeth and blocking teeth, meshing period and the impact of sleeve teeth and clutch gear teeth, and these nonlinear contact steps are realized with Abaqus. In addition, a shift force derives from experiment is applied to the sleeve ring, and a moment is added to the clutch gear to realize the relative rotational speed. Based on the FEA model, the effect of the varied frictional coefficients between the cone surfaces of blocking ring and clutch gear on the synchronizer time and contact stress is discussed. Variation of stresses and contact force with respect to time are evaluated from this analysis. The simulation results can help improving the shift quality and lifespan of the synchronizer.