Kim, N., Jeong, J., Rousseau, A., and Lohse-Busch, H., "Control Analysis and Thermal Model Development for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 4(2):260-268, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1157.
For electrified vehicles, understanding the impact of temperature on vehicle control and performances becomes more important than before because the vehicle might consume more energy than conventional vehicles due to lack of the engine waste heat. Argonne has tested many advanced vehicles and analyzed the vehicle level control based on the test data. As part of its ongoing effort, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was tested in thermal environmental chamber, and the vehicle level control and performances are analyzed by observing the test results. The analysis results show that the control of the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is similar with Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) when the vehicle is under a charge sustaining mode, and the vehicle tries to consume the electric energy first under a charge depleting mode. This study provides information about the operating mode and the control behaviors including the change of the control and performances under cold or hot ambient temperature. In order to validate the analysis results, a vehicle model for the PHEV is developed, and the results show that the simulation model appropriately reproduces the performances of the real world vehicle mostly within 5% even when the ambient temperature is very cold.