Shirk, M. and Wishart, J., "Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1190, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1190.
As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level two electric vehicle supply equipment, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kilowatt fast charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals throughout on-road mile accumulation. Battery tests performed include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests.The data collected over 50,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles over the test period. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory and track testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level two and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.