Knapp, J., Chapman, A., Mody, S., and Steffen, T., "Optimal Control Inputs for Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1221, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1221.
Hybrid electric vehicles offer significant fuel economy benefits, because battery and fuel can be used as complementing energy sources. This paper presents the use of dynamic programming to find the optimal blend of power sources, leading to the lowest fuel consumption and the lowest level of harmful emissions. It is found that the optimal engine behavior differs substantially to an on-line adaptive control system previously designed for the Lotus Evora 414E. When analyzing the trade-off between emission and fuel consumption, CO and HC emissions show a traditional Pareto curve, whereas NOx emissions show a near linear relationship with a high penalty. These global optimization results are not directly applicable for online control, but they can guide the design of a more efficient hybrid control system.