Ellsworth, P., Scott, W., Fowler, M., Fraser, R. et al., "Internal Resistance Optimization Utilizing “Just in Time” Control," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1234, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1234.
Inspection of cell internal resistance (Rint) derived by the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests indicates that Rint is a function of relative capacity (state of charge, or SOC), thus some SOC ranges are more efficient than others. Therefore energy losses can be minimized by placing charge sustaining operation in a more efficient SOC range. This creates three operational stages; the initial charge depleting stage to an efficient SOC, a charge sustaining stage until a recharge station is within reach, and a final charge depleting stage until arrival.When coupled with a known drive distance, this three segment Internal Resistance Based (IRB) control strategy increases the extended range electric vehicle (EREV) net battery efficiency from 96.8 to 97.3 % with an associated 14 % decrease in energy losses across the urban domestic drive schedule. Indirect benefits include an increased active SOC range, decreased urban emissions, and decreased waste heat generation, meeting the goals of Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions.