Gheorghiu, V., "Ultra-Downsizing of Internal Combustion Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1252, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1252.
The downsizing of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is already recognized as a very suitable method for the concurrent enhancement of Indicated Fuel Conversion Efficiency (IFCE) and the lowering of CO2 and NOx emissions. In this report, ultra-downsizing is introduced as an even higher stage of development of ICE. Ultra-downsizing will be implemented here by means of real Atkinson cycles using asymmetrical crank mechanisms, combined with multi-stage high-pressure turbocharging and very intensive intercooling. This will allow an increase of ICE performance while keeping the thermal and mechanical strain strength of engine components within the current usual limits.