High-speed solenoid valve (HSV) is one of the most critical components of electronic control fuel system for diesel engine, whose dynamic response characteristics have a direct impact on the key performance indicators of diesel engine. For the improvement of dynamic response speed of HSV, a design method of multi-objective optimization based on response surface methodology and genetic algorithm (GA) is employed. Firstly, the finite element model (FEM) of HSV was developed and verified. Secondly, the second order polynomial response surface model (RSM) of the electromagnetic force was constructed by the method of optimal latin hypercube design along with the FEM of HSV, taking the key structural parameters of armature and iron core as variables. Then the multi-objective optimization mathematical model (MOMM) of HSV based on RSM was analyzed and established, taking the electromagnetic force and the mass of armature as objectives. Finally, the MOMM was solved by GA, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. It is concluded that the Pareto front approximates a straight line, and the electromagnetic force almost increases linearly with the increase of the armature mass for the Pareto optimal solution set. In addition, the optimal solution is determined for which the electromagnetic force increases by 25.8% but the mass of armature does not increase compared with the old design, which is conducive to improve the dynamic response speed of HSV. It provides certain theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of HSV.