Klinich, K., Boyle, K., Malik, L., Manary, M. et al., "Installed Positions of Child Restraint Systems in Vehicle Second Rows," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1452, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1452.
This study documented the position and orientation of child restraint systems (CRS) installed in the second rows of vehicles, creating a database of 486 installations. Thirty-one different CRS were evaluated, selected to provide a range of manufacturers, sizes, types, and weight limits. Eleven CRS were rear-facing only, fourteen were convertibles, five were combination restraints, and one was a booster. Ten top-selling vehicles were selected to provide a range of manufacturers and body styles: four sedans, four SUVS, one minivan, and one wagon.CRS were marked with three reference points on each moving component. The contours and landmarks of each CRS were first measured in the laboratory. Vehicle interior contours, belt anchors, and LATCH anchors were measured using a similar process. Then each CRS was installed in a vehicle using LATCH according to manufacturers' directions, and the reference points of each CRS component were measured to document the installed orientation. Seven CRS were installed in all vehicles, while the remaining twenty-four CRS were divided into three groups, each tested in three or four vehicles.The geometric data for each vehicle and CRS were imported into Hypermesh software for processing. The measured coordinates of the CRS reference points were used to orient the CRS geometry appropriately in each vehicle. Results include differences in installed orientation and lateral position across vehicles, CRS, and seating positions. The distance and angle from the lower anchor (LA) to the LATCH belt contact point on the CRS belt path are also reported. Specific examples of CRS/vehicle incompatibility are included.