Hu, J., "The Application of Hybrid III 5th Percentile Dummy FE Model for Rear Row Occupant Simulation in Frontal Crash Test," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1458, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1458.
A Finite Element (FE) model for analysis of the rear row occupant injury assessment parameters in a frontal crash test was developed by using the LSTC Hybrid III 5th percentile FE dummy model. Three cases were studied using three different rear seatbelt retractor configurations, which were as follows: an ordinary retractor without load limiter or pretensioner (Case 1), a retractor with load limiter only (Case 2), and a retractor with load limiter and pretensioner (Case 3). The simulation results of each of these three cases were compared respectively to the results obtained from two frontal 50-kph full rigid barrier impact tests and one sled test. It turned out that the dummy kinematics and injury assessment parameters of the head, neck, chest, pelvis and femurs were all similar between test and simulation in the three cases. Thus, FE simulation models can be used to predict dummy injury assessment parameters. The chest and pelvis accelerations and chest deflection reduced, while the head acceleration and neck forces increased in the case of “retractor with load limiter” (Case 2), compared to the case of “ordinary retractor” (Case 1). The most effective way to reduce all the injury assessment parameters was to use a “load limiting retractor together with a pretensioner” (Case 3).