Isshiki, T., Konosu, A., and Takahashi, Y., "Influence of the Upper Body of Pedestrians on Lower Limb Injuries and Effectiveness of the Upper Body Compensation Method of the FlexPLI," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 3(2):153-163, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1470.
Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles.In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.The results show that the upper body significantly influenced the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian. This influence was found to be bumper height dependent. In addition, method of compensation for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI was found not to work for high-bumper vehicles effectively. These results suggest the need to develop a new test method that appropriately incorporates upper body representation regardless of bumper height.