El-jawahri, R., Laituri, T., Kim, A., Rouhana, S. et al., "Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Frontal Sled Impact," SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 3(1):57-80, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1489.
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot. All of the resulting regression equations, correlation coefficients, and response ratios (FHBM relative to HIII50) were consistent with a set of test-based results. The HIC15 transfer equation was used to transform the cadaver-based risk curve into the HIII50 domain.