Liu, F. and Pfeiffer, J., "Estimation Algorithms for Low Pressure Cooled EGR in Spark-Ignition Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(4):1652-1659, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1620.
Low-pressure, Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LPC EGR) brings significant fuel economy, NOx reduction and knock suppression benefits to a modern, boosted, downsized Spark Ignition (SI) engine. As a prerequisite to design an engine control system for LPC EGR, this paper presents development of a set of estimation algorithms to accurately estimate the flow rate, pressure states and thermal states of the LPC EGR-related components.