Karlsson, R., Pilgeram, T., and Dailey, M., "Experimental Determination of Coolant Evaporation Rate from Atmospheric Recovery Volume and Projected Loss Rate by Duty Cycle," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1655, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1655.
Passenger vehicle engine cooling systems typically fall into surge tank or recovery type systems. Recovery systems rely on an expansion/recovery volume, which operates at atmospheric pressure. Over long periods of time and with elevated temperatures, coolant evaporates from this atmospheric recovery bottle. An experimental study determined the evaporation rate as a function of temperature for one bottle geometry. A 1-D model then projected the total coolant loss to evaporation over several different hypothetical customer duty cycles to evaluate robustness of recommended service intervals.