Zha, K., Busch, S., Miles, P., Wijeyakulasuriya, S. et al., "Characterization of Flow Asymmetry During the Compression Stroke Using Swirl-Plane PIV in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine with the Re-entrant Piston Bowl Geometry," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(4):1837-1855, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1699.
Flow field asymmetry can lead to an asymmetric mixture preparation in Diesel engines. To understand the evolution of this asymmetry, it is necessary to characterize the in-cylinder flow over the full compression stroke. Moreover, since bowl-in-piston cylinder geometries can substantially impact the in-cylinder flow, characterization of these flows requires the use of geometrically correct pistons. In this work, the flow has been visualized via a transparent piston top with a realistic bowl geometry, which causes severe experimental difficulties due to the spatial and temporal variation of the optical distortion. An advanced optical distortion correction method is described to allow reliable particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements through the full compression stroke.Based on the ensemble-averaged velocity results, flow asymmetry characterized by the swirl center offset and the associated tilting of the vortex axis is quantified. The observed vertical tilting of swirl center axis is similar for tested swirl ratios (2.2 and 3.5), indicating that the details of the intake flows are not of primary importance to the late-compression mean flow asymmetry. Instead, the geometry of the piston pip likely impacts the flow asymmetry.The PIV results also confirm the numerically simulated flow asymmetry in the early and late compression stroke: at BDC, the swirl center is located closer to the exhaust valves for swirl-planes farther away from the fire deck; near TDC, the swirl center is located closer to the intake valves for swirl-planes farther away from the fire deck. It is evident from experimentally determined velocity fields that the transition between these two asymmetries has a different path for various swirl ratios, suggesting the influence of intake port flows.