Cartwright, J., Selamet, A., Wade, R., Miazgowicz, K. et al., "Heat Rejection and Skin Temperatures of an Externally Cooled Exhaust Manifold," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1736, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1736.
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a 3.5 L Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene-glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm at 12 different engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal coolant inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 °C and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate. The manifold cooling jacket is observed to successfully reduce skin temperatures in the collector region. However, away from the cooling jacket, skin temperatures are insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate, but remain below the iron-carbon lower transformation temperature limit near 750 °C.