Yoso, T., Yamakawa, M., Tamura, R., and Kusaka, J., "Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1808, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1808.
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima  with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.