Nishida, K., Hashizume, T., Hasegawa, R., and Ogawa, T., "Low Cooling Losses and Low Emission Analysis of Small Bore Diesel Engine Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1824, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1824.
Small bore diesel engines often adopt a two-valve cylinder head and a non-central injector layout to expand the port flow passage area. This non-central injector layout causes asymmetrical gas flow and fuel distribution, resulting in worse heat losseses and a less homogenous fuel-air mixture than an equivalent four-valve cylinder head layout with a central injector. To improve these problems Toyota applied a new concept which was characterized by tapered shape design on the upper portion of the piston and low compression ratio to achieve more homogeneous gas flow and fuel-air mixture. This paper describes the impact of new combustion concept and the mechanism of the improvement by 3D-CFD analysis and optical measurement.