Horibe, N., Komizo, T., Mamizuka, Y., Sumimoto, T. et al., "Analysis of Mixture Formation Process in a Diesel Engine with Post Injection," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1836, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1836.
A series of experiments was conducted using a single-cylinder small-bore (85 mm) diesel engine to investigate the smoke-reduction effect of post injection by varying the number of injection nozzle orifices and the injection pressure. The experiments were performed under a constant injection quantity condition and under a fixed NOx emission condition. The results indicated that the smoke emission of six-hole, seven-hole, and eight-hole nozzles decreased for advanced post injection, except that the smoke emission of the 10-hole nozzle increased as the post injection was advanced from a moderately late timing around 17° ATDC. However, the smoke emission of the 10-hole nozzle with a higher injection pressure decreased for advanced post injection. These trends were explained considering the influence of the main-spray flames on post sprays based on CFD simulation results.