Fuyuto, T., Hattori, Y., Yamashita, H., and Mashida, M., "Backward Flow of Hot Burned Gas Surrounding High-Pressure Diesel Spray Flame from Multi-hole Nozzle," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):71-83, 2016, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1837.
The backward flow of the hot burned gas surrounding a diesel flame was found to be one of the factors dominating the set-off length (also called the lift-off length), that is, the distance from a nozzle exit into which a diffusion flame cannot intrude. In the combustion chamber of an actual diesel engine, the entrainment of the surrounding gas into a spray jet from a multi-hole nozzle is restricted by the walls and adjacent spray jets, which induces the backward flow of the surrounding gas. A new momentum theory to calculate the backward flow velocity was established by extending Wakuri's momentum theory. Shadowgraph imaging in an optical engine successfully visualized the backward flow of the hot burned gas.