Saijyo, K., Ishii, Y., and Takashima, T., "CFD Analysis of Spray-Wall Interaction under Evaporating Condition," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1854, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1854.
To improve the impinging spray's computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations under evaporating conditions, a detailed large eddy simulation (LES) code was constructed and examined for modeling the near-wall-velocity behavior of the impinging jet. The near-wall-velocity profile within the impinging jet was found to be different from that obtained using the steady wall functions. On the basis of this knowledge, a simple model of the wall boundary conditions was proposed for the impinging jet. The tests covered two different turbulence models. Comparing with the conventional wall functions, the proposed model improved the accuracy of the impinging spray simulations.