Hori, T., Hanasaki, M., Komae, J., Matsumura, E. et al., "Compressible Large-Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Structure using OpenFOAM," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1858, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1858.
The compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) for the diesel spray with OpenFOAM is presented to reduce CPU time by massively parallel computing of the scalar type supercomputer (CRAY XE6) and simulate the development of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray. The maximum computational speeds are 14 times (128 cores) and 43 times (128 cores) for of the non-evaporative spray and the spray flame with one-step reaction, respectively, compared to the one core simulation. In the spray flame simulation with the reduced reaction mechanism (29 species, 52 reactions), the maximum computational speed is 149 times (512 cores). Then LES of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray (Spray A) are calculated. The results indicate that the spray tip penetration is well predicted, although the size of the computational domain must be set equal to that of the experiment. In the evaporative spray, the CPU time is 14 hours with 512 cores from the injection start to 5.0 ms under 9,440,000 cells, while the CPU time with one core is 90.5 days. The computational speed is 154 times.