Leng, X., He, Z., Jin, Y., Zhong, W. et al., "Characterization of Internal Flow of Intersecting Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1860, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1860.
The intersecting hole nozzle, in which each orifice is formed by the converging of two or more child-holes, was proposed for the purpose of enhancing the internal turbulence in diesel nozzle, so as to promote the fuel atomization. In this paper, the internal flow characteristics of a cylindrical hole nozzle and two intersecting hole nozzles are studied by CFD simulation. The results show that, compared with conventional cylindrical hole nozzle, the internal flow of intersecting hole nozzles is characterized with slower rate of pressure decrease in the hole, none or very little cavitation, as well as about 20% to 30% higher discharge coefficients, especially under conditions of high injection pressure. Additionally, the setting of the blind hole as a disturbing domain in the intersecting hole nozzle results in more perturbation for internal flow, which will be beneficial for fuel atomization.