Morikawa, K., Moriyoshi, Y., Kuboyama, T., Yamada, T. et al., "Investigation of Lubricating Oil Properties Effect on Low Speed Pre-Ignition," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1870, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1870.
The effect of properties of lubricating oil on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was investigated. Three different factors of oil properties such as cetane number, distillation characteristics and Calcium (Ca) additive (with and without) are prepared and examined. Then actual engine test of LSPI was carried out to evaluate the effect and to clarify the mechanism and role of lubricating oil. Finally it is clarified that the oil cetane number and/or Ca additive strongly affect LSPI phenomena.